# cousin_it comments on Problematic Problems for TDT - Less Wrong

34 29 May 2012 03:41PM

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Comment author: 23 May 2012 11:03:55AM 21 points [-]

I think we could generalise problem 2 to be problematic for any decision theory XDT:

There are 10 boxes, numbered 1 to 10. You may only take one. Omega has (several times) run a simulated XDT agent on this problem. It then put a prize in the box which it determined was least likely to be taken by such an agent - or, in the case of a tie, in the box with the lowest index.

If agent X follows XDT, it has at best a 10% chance of winning. Any sufficiently resourceful YDT agent, however, could run a simulated XDT agent themselves, and figure out what Omega's choice was without getting into an infinite loop.

Therefore, YDT performs better than XDT on this problem.

If I'm right, we may have shown the impossibility of a "best' decision theory, no matter how meta you get (in a close analogy to Godelian incompleteness). If I'm wrong, what have I missed?

Comment author: 23 May 2012 11:33:55AM *  9 points [-]

You're right about problem 2 being a fully general counterargument, but your philosophical conclusion seems to be stopping too early. For example, can we define a class of "fair" problems that excludes problem 2?

Comment author: 23 May 2012 12:11:09PM 2 points [-]

One possible place to look is that we're allowing Omega access not just to a particular simulated decision of TDT, but to the probabilities with which it makes these decisions. If we force it to simulate TDT many times and sample to learn what the probabilities are, it can't detect the exact balance for which it does deterministic symmetry breaking, and the problem goes away.

This solution occurred to me because this forces Omega to have something like a continuous behaviour response to changes in the probabilities of different TDT outputs, and it seems possible given that to imagine a proof that a fixed point must exist.

Comment author: 23 May 2012 01:20:26PM 0 points [-]

Fair point - how does Omega tell when the sim's choosing probabilities are exactly equal? Well I was thinking that Omega could prove they are equal (by analysing the simulation's behaviour, and checking where it calls on random bits). Or if it can't do that, then it can just check that the choice frequencies are "statistically equal" (i.e. no significant differences after a billion runs, say) and treat them as equal for the tie-breaker rule. The "statistically equal" approach might give the TDT agent a very slightly higher than 10% chance of winning the money, though I haven't analysed this in any detail.

Comment author: 23 May 2012 10:26:31PM 0 points [-]

If the subject can know the exact code of TDT, Omega can know the exact code of TDT, and analyse it however it likes. That means it can know exactly where randomness is invoked - why would it have to sample?

Comment author: 24 May 2012 11:59:02AM 1 point [-]

This was my first thought: Omega can just prove the choosing probabilities are equal. However, it's not totally straightforward, because the sim could sample more random bits depending on the results of its first random bits, and so on, leading to an exponentially growing outcome tree of possibilities, with no upper size bound to the length of the tree. There might not be an easy proof of equality in that case. Sampling and statistical equality is the next best approach...

Comment author: 23 May 2012 10:36:28PM 1 point [-]

It looks like the issue here is that while Omega is ostensibly not taking into account your decision theory, it implicitly is by simulating an XDT agent. So a first patch would be to define simulations of a specific decision theory (as opposed to simulations of a given agent) as "unfair".

On the other hand, we can't necessarily know if a given computation is effectively equivalent to simulating a given decision theory. Even if the string "TDT" is never encoded anywhere in Omega's super-neurons, it might still be simulating a TDT agent, for example.

On the first hand again, it might be easy for most problems to figure out whether anyone is implicitly favouring one DT over another, and thus whether they're "fair".