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Recent updates to gwern.net (2015-2016)

28 Post author: gwern 26 August 2016 07:22PM

Previously: 2011; 2012-2013; 2013-2014; 2014-2015

"When I was one-and-twenty / I heard a wise man say, / 'Give crowns and pounds and guineas / But not your heart away; / Give pearls away and rubies / But keep your fancy free.' / But I was one-and-twenty, / No use to talk to me."

My past year of completed writings, sorted by topic:


  • Embryo selection for intelligence cost-benefit analysis
    • meta-analysis of intelligence GCTAs, limits set by measurement error, current polygenic scores, possible gains with current IVF procedures, the benefits of selection on multiple complex traits, the possible annual value in the USA of selection & value of larger GWASes, societal consequences of various embryo selection scenarios, embryo count versus polygenic scores as limiting factors, comparison with iterated embryo selection, limits to total gains from iterated embryo selection etc.
  • Wikipedia article on Genome-wide complex trait analysis (GCTA)






gwern.net itself has remained largely stable (some CSS fixes and image size changes); I continue to use Patreon and send out my newsletters.

Comments (5)

Comment author: ChristianKl 28 August 2016 10:29:28AM 2 points [-]

Do you have an opinion about whether Vitamin K2 should be used along with Vitamin D3 supplementation?

Comment author: polymathwannabe 28 August 2016 10:09:49PM 5 points [-]

I happen to be working on that at the office. Here is a snapshot of the opinion landscape (all from PubMed):

Iwamoto J. Vitamin K₂ therapy for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Nutrients. 2014 May 16;6(5):1971-80.

DiNicolantonio JJ, Bhutani J, O'Keefe JH. The health benefits of vitamin K. Open Heart. 2015 Oct 6;2(1):e000300.

Huang ZB, Wan SL, Lu YJ, Ning L, Liu C, Fan SW. Does vitamin K2 play a role in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis for postmenopausal women: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Osteoporos Int. 2015 Mar;26(3):1175-86.

Falcone TD, Kim SS, Cortazzo MH. Vitamin K: fracture prevention and beyond. PM R. 2011 Jun;3(6 Suppl 1):S82-7.

Maresz K. Proper Calcium Use: Vitamin K2 as a Promoter of Bone and Cardiovascular Health. Integr Med (Encinitas). 2015 Feb;14(1):34-9.

Hamidi MS, Cheung AM. Vitamin K and musculoskeletal health in postmenopausal women. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2014 Aug;58(8):1647-57.

Stevenson M, Lloyd-Jones M, Papaioannou D. Vitamin K to prevent fractures in older women: systematic review and economic evaluation. Health Technol Assess. 2009 Sep;13(45):iii-xi, 1-134.

Fang Y, Hu C, Tao X, Wan Y, Tao F. Effect of vitamin K on bone mineral density: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Bone Miner Metab. 2012 Jan;30(1):60-8.

Vermeer C, Theuwissen E. Vitamin K, osteoporosis and degenerative diseases of ageing. Menopause Int. 2011 Mar;17(1):19-23.

Azuma K, Ouchi Y, Inoue S. Vitamin K: novel molecular mechanisms of action and its roles in osteoporosis. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2014 Jan;14(1):1-7.

Hamidi MS, Gajic-Veljanoski O, Cheung AM. Vitamin K and bone health. J Clin Densitom. 2013 Oct-Dec;16(4):409-13.

Shah K, Gleason L, Villareal DT. Vitamin K and bone health in older adults. J Nutr Gerontol Geriatr. 2014;33(1):10-22.

Iwamoto J, Takeda T, Sato Y. Menatetrenone (vitamin K2) and bone quality in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Nutr Rev. 2006 Dec;64(12):509-17.

Pearson DA. Bone health and osteoporosis: the role of vitamin K and potential antagonism by anticoagulants. Nutr Clin Pract. 2007 Oct;22(5):517-44.

Gundberg CM, Lian JB, Booth SL. Vitamin K-dependent carboxylation of osteocalcin: friend or foe? Adv Nutr. 2012 Mar 1;3(2):149-57.

Bügel S. Vitamin K and bone health in adult humans. Vitam Horm. 2008;78:393-416.

Booth SL. Vitamin K status in the elderly. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2007 Jan;10(1):20-3.

Shea MK, Booth SL. Update on the role of vitamin K in skeletal health. Nutr Rev. 2008 Oct;66(10):549-57.

Iwamoto J, Sato Y, Takeda T, Matsumoto H. High-dose vitamin K supplementation reduces fracture incidence in postmenopausal women: a review of the literature. Nutr Res. 2009 Apr;29(4):221-8.

Iwamoto J, Matsumoto H, Takeda T. Efficacy of menatetrenone (vitamin K2) against non-vertebral and hip fractures in patients with neurological diseases: meta-analysis of three randomized, controlled trials. Clin Drug Investig. 2009;29(7):471-9.

Iwamoto J, Sato Y. Menatetrenone for the treatment of osteoporosis. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2013 Mar;14(4):449-58.

Cranenburg EC, Schurgers LJ, Vermeer C. Vitamin K: the coagulation vitamin that became omnipotent. Thromb Haemost. 2007 Jul;98(1):120-5.

Guralp O, Erel CT. Effects of vitamin K in postmenopausal women: mini review. Maturitas. 2014 Mar;77(3):294-9.

Comment author: hg00 30 August 2016 09:40:17AM 0 points [-]

What's the best quantity/form to supplement it in? (In your opinion.) Some guy on Amazon compared a bunch of K2 supplements and recommended this one, but it has worrisome negative reviews.

Comment author: niceguyanon 30 August 2016 05:25:17PM 1 point [-]

I've been eagerly waiting for the analysis and conclusion to your Magnesium experiment #2 When will that be out?

Comment author: gwern 04 September 2016 07:05:30PM 0 points [-]

Whenever it's done; I'm probably going to run out of placebos within a month or so, and while I still have a ton of magnesium powder (not sure how I wound up buying so much), I don't think I want to make additional batches of placebo, since it's already run long enough.